1. Semiperimeter of a triangle is denoted by s.
2. Area of a triangle is denoted by Δ or S.
3. a,b, and c represent sides BC,CA, and AB
4. Sine rule
In any Δ ABC
Sin A/a = Sin B/b = Sin C/c
5. Cosine Formulae
In any Δ ABC
Cos A = [b² + c² -a²]/2bc
Cos B = [c² +a² –b²]/2ac
Cos C = [a² + b² –c²]/2ab
6. Projection formulae
In any Δ ABC
a = b Cos C + C cos B
b= c Cos A + A Cos C
c = a Cos B + b cos A
7. Trigonometrical ratios of half of the angles of a triangle
1. Sin A/2 = √[(s-b)(s-c)/bc]
2. Cos A/2 = √[s(s-a)/bc]
3. tan A/2 = √(s-b)(s-c)/s(s-a)]
8. Area of a triangle
S = ½ ab Sin C = ½ bc sina = ½ ac sin B
9. Napier’s analogy
In any triangle ABC
Tan [(b-c)/2] = [(b-c)cot (A/2)]/(b+c)
10. Circumcircle of a triangle
The circle which passes through the angular points or vertices of a triangle ABC is called its circumcircle.
The centre of this circle can be found by locating the point of intersection of perpendicular bisectors of the sides. It is called circumcentre.
The circumcentre may lie within, outside or upon one of the sides of the triangle.
In a right angled triangle the cicumcentre is vertex where right angle is formed.
The radius of circumcircle is denoted by R.
R = a/(2 Sin A) = b/(2 sin B) = c/(2 sin C)
R = abc/4Δ
11. Inscribed circle or incircle of a triangle
It is the circle touches each of the sides of the triangle.
The centre of the inscribed circle is the point of intersection of bisectors of the angles of the triangle.
The radius of inscribed circle is denoted by r (it is called in-radius) and it is equal to the length of the perpendicular from its centre to any of the sides of the triangle.
Various formulas that give r.
In- radius ( r )= Δ/s
r = (s-a)tan (A/2) = (s-b) tan (B/2) = (s-c) tan (C/2)
r = [a sin B/2 sin C/2/(Cos A/2)
r = 4R sin (A/2) sin (B/2) sin (C/2)
12. Escribed circles of a triangle
The circle which touches the sides BC and two sides AB and AC produced of a triangle ABC is called the escribed circle opposite to the angle A. Its radius is denoted by r1.
Similarly r2 and r3 denote the radii of the escribed circles opposite to the angles B and C respectively.
The centres of the escribed circles are called the ex-centres.
13. Orthocentre and its distances from the angular points of a triangle
In a Δ ABC, the point at which perpendiculars drawn from the three vertices (heights) meet, it called the ortho centre of the ΔABC
14. Regular polygon and Radii of the inscribed and circumscribing circles of a regular polygon
the centre of the polygon will be the in-centre as well as circumcentre of the polygon.
15. Area of a cyclic quadrilateral
a quadrilateral is a cyclic quadrilateral if its vertices lie on a circle.
Area of cyclic quadrilateral = ½ (ab + cd) sin B
16. Ptolemy’s theorem
In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AC.BD = AB.CD + BC.AD
The product of diagonals is equal to the sum of the products of the lengths of opposite sides.
17. Circum-radius of a cyclic quadrilateral
In a cyclic quadrilateral, the circumcircle of the quadrilateral ABCD is also the circumcircle of Δ ABC.
Past IIT questions
1. The perimeter of a Δ ABC is three times the arithmetic mean of the sines of its angle. If the side a is 1, then the angle a is
2. If the radius of the circumcircle of an isosceles triangle PQR is equal to PQ = PR, the angle P is
3. In a Δ ABC, if (cos A)/a = (cos B)/b = (cos C)/c , and the side a =2, the the area of the triangle is
4. If in a triangle ABC
2cos A/a = cos B/b + 2 cos C/c = a/bc + b/ca
then the value of the angle A is _____________ degrees
(JEE Screening 1993)